Engineering Tools, Calculators, and Charts

Scheduling Days / Weeks Out

Project Management

Easily determine lead times based on order or submittal dates.

Scheduling Calculator

Margin & Markup

Project Management

Margin and markup are frequently confused. Don’t make that error with this easy to use tool.

Margin and Markup Calculator

Unit Conversion

General Use

Convert almost any unit of measurement you can think of.

Unit conversion

Engineering Education

Moment Connection – Types, vs. Shear, Uses in Steel Construction

In structural engineering, a moment connection refers to a joint that allows the transfer of bending moment forces between a column and a beam or between any other two adjoining…

Quiescent Current – Calculation, Formula, vs. Other Types

Quiescent current is a very important parameter in battery-powered applications. This particularly holds true for products that are often on standby. In this article, you will learn the meaning of…

Is Physics Hard?

Is physics hard? Yes. It often is considered as a weed-out class for engineering majors. Physics is a topic that covers the motion and behavior of objects as they relate…

IFC Drawings – Meaning, vs. Other Types, Revision

IFC drawings, also called Issued For Construction drawings, are approved drawings from which a product can be built. In this article, you will learn the meaning of IFC drawings, compare…

Re-entrant Corner – Problems, Conditions, Design & Repair Solutions

A re-entrant corner is an internal corner of a concrete slab. Depending on prevalent conditions, such a corner may be subject to cracking and often requires some reinforcement. In this…

Tolerance Analysis – Common Types, in Manufacturing and Product Design

Tolerance analysis entails all processes in determining the variation in size of mechanical parts, and its consequent effects on assemblies. Moreover, this study provides insight into the effects of dimensional…

Engineering Stress vs True Stress – Concepts, Curve, & Applications

Engineering stress and true stress are common ways of measuring load application over a cross-sectional area. Moreover, these concepts serve in highlighting the stress-strain relationship in a structure or member…

Dynamic Amplification Factor (DAF) – Eurocode, & Offshore Lifting

Dynamic amplification factor (DAF) or dynamic increase factor (DIF) refers to the ratio of the dynamic response of a structure to its static response. Moreover, the value of this ratio,…

Minor Loss Coefficient – How to Determine and Reduce

The minor loss coefficient measures a fluid’s energy loss in a pipe due to the presence of fittings, valves, and other impediments. Moreover, in industry, the letter ‘K’ represents this…

Brake Horsepower (BHP), vs WHP, vs Torque, Pumps & Compressors

Brake horsepower refers to the horsepower at the output shaft of an engine, motor, or turbine., Its value is less than what is indicated on the device due to losses…

Axial Force – Calculation and Formula, Diagram, vs Other Forces

Axial force refers to a load whose line of action runs along the length of a structure or perpendicular to the structure’s cross-section. Moreover, the line of force goes through…

Specific Heat of Ice – In Various Units, vs. Water, Ice’s Thermal Properties

The specific heat of ice measures the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of a particular substance in a particular form by one degree Celsius. This article provides…

Angle of Deflection – Definition, Formula, & Applications

Deflection angle is an important concept in several fields including surveying, photogrammetry, and use of radars. Understanding this concept is critical to predicting and modeling the movement of objects in…

Linear vs. Lineal, Uses, vs. Board Feet

Linear refers to a straight line or lines vs. lineal, which means descended in a direct line from an ancestor. Both terms have use in manufacturing and distribution. In this…

What is ASME?

The article answers many common questions about ASME. Questions include: What exactly is ASME? What is ASME Certification, and why is it important? What is ASME code, and what does…

Chain Dimensioning – What it is, vs. Datum Dimensioning, in Software

Chain dimensioning provides a measurement standard for engineering and other technical drawings. It is common to refer to it as point-to-point dimensioning. In this article you will learn what chain…

Belt Creep – Definition, Cause, vs. Slip, How to Reduce

Belt creep occurs in a belt-drive transmission when the drive such as a pulley, moves slightly faster than the belt. In this article, you will learn the definition of belt…

Hydraulic Gradient – Implication, Formula, Use, and Applications

Hydraulic gradient refers to the change in water level per unit distance along the direction of maximum head decrease. Simply put, it is the rate of change in total head…

Doubler Plates – Application and Design

A doubler plate refers to a small piece of plate that is attached to a larger area, to provide strengthening in that location. In engineering, it is common to refer…

Pipeline Header – Purpose, Design, and Calculation

A pipeline header connects flowlines from several different sources into a single gathering line. In this article, you will learn the purpose of a pipeline header, important factors in its…

Structurally Sound: Definition, Use in Buildings and Bridges

Definition Structurally sound means free from defects, flaws decay, and deterioration to the extent that structures or buildings accomplish their design. In terms of public infrastructures, structurally sound buildings lack…

What is Saturated Liquid?

A saturated liquid is a fluid that is about to boil. It has reached a state where any decrease in pressure without a temperature change would initiate boiling. In this…

Bilateral Tolerance

Bilateral tolerance is one of the primary three tolerances that occur most often on working drawings. A bilateral tolerance exists when a variation from the desired dimension is shown as occurring…

Stamped Drawings – Purpose, Process, and Alternatives

To obtain appropriate permitting and meet required specifications, many construction projects require stamped drawings. Stamped drawings bear the seal of a Professional Engineer. They may take the form of a…

Cheapest Metals – From Least to Most Expensive + Indices

Often classic material characteristics such ductility, hardness, fatigue strength, and yield strength aren’t the primary driver of material selection. Sometimes, an engineer or designer simply wants the cheapest metal available….

PLC Cabinet – Types, Layout, Wiring, and Components

PLC is short for Programmable Logic Controller. PLC cabinet refers to the housing that contains a control system, which automates various industrial processes. In addition, the cabinet protects its components…

Cracking Moment

The cracking of concrete occurs due to several reasons. These reasons include excessive deflection, plastic shrinkage, severe corrosion of steel rebar, etc. However, the concept of cracking moment deals with…

Venturi Meter vs. Orifice Meter – Differences, Applications, & Alternatives

Venturi and orifice meters are devices that reduce the pressure of a moving stream to measure its average velocity, volumetric flow rate, or mass flow rate. The continuity equation and…

Running Torque – Definition, vs Holding, Prevailing, Breakway Torque

Running torque refers to the amount of torque a device needs to maintain the constant angular velocity of a rotating part once in operation. Knowing this value provides important operating…

What is the Engineer of Record?

A professional engineer who seals drawings, reports, or papers for a project is the Engineer of Record or EoR. The seal signifies that an EoR developed, coordinated, or prepared drawings,…

Placing a Dowel Rebar into Existing Concrete

Dowel rebar is frequently employed in new construction projects and rehabilitation ones like slab replacement. Certain applications require the addition of a dowel rebar into existing concrete. You must understand…

Vortex Breaker – Formation, Effects on Flow, Design, and Applications

A vortex refers to the rotation of a fluid’s core while draining from a vessel. Moreover, engineers use vortex breakers to prevent the formation of vortices due to their effect…

Residual Pressure

Residual pressure is a concept common with water supply systems. It refers to the pressure remaining in a pipe during flow conditions. This contrasts with static pressure, which is the…

Engine Load – Definition, Calculation, vs. RPM, at Idle

An engine load determines the demand put on an engine’s capacity to produce power. Moreover, the load provides specification guidance to manufacturers as they design engines to ensure that they…

Pipe Invert Elevation

Pipe invert elevation is the vertical distance between the inside-bottom of a pipe and a given benchmark. Moreover, the term ‘invert’ stems from the resemblance of the pipe bottom to…

Equivalent Fluid Pressure – Background, Calculation, and Design

Equivalent fluid pressure (EFP) is a simplification of the lateral loading that the soil exerts on an earth-retaining wall. Moreover, the equivalent fluid refers to a hypothetical fluid, having a…

Gasoline Boiling Point – Blends, Pressure, and Weather Considerations

At atmospheric pressure, gasoline has an initial boiling point of 95 °F (35 °C) and a final boiling point of 395 °F (200 °C). This wide range is due to…

Is Statics a Hard Class?

Statics is a class that deals with the application of Newtonian physics and serves as an entry point into engineering mechanics. Typically, mechanical and civil engineers take the class as…

Isentropic

Isentropic is a term that describes a process during which the entropy of the system remains constant. In thermodynamics, isentropic refers to an idealized process, where work transfers of a…

What is the Clausius Inequality?

To understand what the Clausius Inequality is, one must first look at a thermodynamic system, which exchanges heat with its environment. The Clausius Inequality relates the change in entropy of…

Helical Spring Constant – Formula, K Factor, Parameters, and Applications

The helical spring constant, more commonly referred to as the k value, provides key information about a spring’s stiffness capacity. A greater k value is indicative of a greater restoration…

Is Heat a State Function?

Is heat a state function? The answer is no. Heat is the energy transferred between the system and the surroundings during a process. The amount that transfers does depend on how the…

Is Thermal Energy Potential or Kinetic?

Thermal energy refers to the energy that a body or system has due to the movement of its particles. So, is thermal energy potential or kinetic? The answer lies in…

Tapcon vs Wedge Anchor – Applications and Installation

Tapcon and wedge anchors are pre-installed mechanical anchors that attach structural objects to concrete structures. However, the wedge anchor suits heavier-duty applications, vs the Tapcon anchor that typically serve lighter…

Examples of Porous Materials

A porous substance contains pores, voids, or holes on purpose. In this article, you’ll learn examples of porous materials, the benefits of porous materials, and determine how to reduce porosity….

Enthalpy vs Entropy – Differences, H-S Chart, and Applications

Enthalpy vs entropy -what’s the difference? All materials contain both of these thermodynamic properties. Enthalpy provides the total amount of internal energy held within a substance. Entropy measures the randomness…

Weld Map

A weld map provides locations of welds on steel structures, pipe, pressure vessels, or specialty industrial equipment. In the fabrication of industrial material, locating different weld joints and seams allows…

Examples of Ductile Materials

Ductile materials break with lots of elongation before failure. In this article, you will receive examples of ductile materials, learn about fracture type, and determine how to reduce the material…

Examples of Brittle Materials – Glass, Ceramics, and Special Alloys

Brittle materials break with little or no elongation prior to failure. In this article, you’ll receive examples of brittle materials, learn about fracture type, and determine how to reduce the…

What is Hydrogen Induced Cracking (HIC)?

Hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC), or hydrogen embrittlement, is a chemical phenomenon that causes metal alloys to fracture due to a build-up of hydrogen molecules within the crystal lattice structure. This unique…

Carnot Cycle – Principles and Calculations

The Carnot cycle is a thermodynamic cycle that represents a theoretical heat engine. The main reason why the cycle can not actually exist is that the concept relies on holding…

Types Of Engineering Fit – Categories And Its Applications

Engineered products frequently must slip or press against each other to deliver their functions. The way products interact is designed as an engineering fit. There are three types of engineering…

The Stirling Cycle – Principles and Calculations

The Stirling cycle is a thermodynamic cycle and a variation of the Carnot cycle. Rather than undergoing isentropic processes, the cycle undergoes isochoric processes. As a truly reversible cycle, it…

Do Electric Cars Have Gears?

Electric cars generally do not have gears as they don’t have multi-speed transmissions. Electric vehicles receive power via an electric motor. The electric motor produces a consistent amount of torque…

Diesel Cycle – Principles, Calculations, and Applications

The diesel cycle is a thermodynamic cycle which undergoes internal combustion. It is similar to the Otto cycle. However, the main difference is that the fuel heats by the compression…

Shop Drawings – Definition, Use, Examples, Software, & Alternatives

Shop drawings, or fabrication drawings, provide fabrication details that a facility or field crew uses to manufacture a part or assembly. In this article, you will learn the definition of…

Damping Ratio

In many engineering applications, damping ratio provides an important dimensionless parameter that describes the decay of oscillations in a system. From a system’s equilibrium, external disturbances may cause displacements in…

Refrigeration Cycle – Principles, Calculations, and Applications

The refrigeration cycle is a specially designed thermodynamic cycle that removes heat from a closed environment to keep the inside cool. Likewise, it provides the exact opposite effect by simply…

Otto Cycle – Principles and Calculations

The Otto cycle is best exemplified by the sparkplug engine. Regularly seen in car engines and lawnmowers, this cycle is versatile in the different jobs it can do as well…

Roof Snow Load Chart & Table Per IBC – United States

General Snow Load Guidance Section 1608 of the International Building Code provides a roof snow load chart and table for the United States. The first paragraph of 1608.1 dictates the…

Helipad Structural Design

The International Building Code (IBC) governs helipad structural design. Section 1607.6 Helipads of the IBC Code provides detailed design guidance. Helipad Live Load Design The uniform live load of a…

Hydraulic Permeability – Definition, Calculations, & Applications

Hydraulic permeability is a unit of measure that describes the mobility and ease by which fluids are able to navigate. It is notated by the letter k in scientific and…

Brayton Cycle – Principles and Calculations

The Brayton cycle is a thermodynamic cycle that utilizes warm air as the working fluid. The cycle sees common use in jet engines, because of the flow of air and…

Germanium Transistor – History, Purpose, and Pin-Out

As civilization grows bigger, technological developments get smaller in size. The discovery of the germanium transistor ushered in a new age of computing. Its technology would become the building blocks…

Rankine Cycle – Principles and Calculations

The Rankine cycle is a thermodynamic cycle that allows uses steam as the working fluid inside of a cycle. This contrasts with most thermodynamic cycles that use air or some…

Thermodynamic Cycles- Principles, Purpose, and Types

Thermodynamic cycles are processes that involve heat and work flowing into and out of a system. These systems usually intake a working fluid and output mechanical work or energy. These…

Hydraulic Diameter – Purpose, Formula, Alternatives, Applications

Hydraulic diameter, DH, is the characteristic length used to determine Reynolds number when dealing with flow in non-circular mediums. Reynolds number may then be of use in determining whether a…

Modulus of Rigidity – Equation, Steel Selection, and Values

The modulus of rigidity is the ratio of shear stress to shear strain. Thus, it measures the ability of the material to withstand distortion. However, the rigidity of the material…

DBTT – Ductile Brittle Transition Temperature

The ductile-brittle transition temperature, often referred to as DBTT, is the temperature at which there is a pronounced decrease in a material’s ability to absorb force without fracturing. At this…

Stagnation Pressure – Uses and Real Life Applications

Stagnation pressure is the fluid pressure that is measured while an initially flowing fluid is fully at rest. The fluid still holds mechanical energy through pressure despite having no movement….

Shot Peening – Process, Machines, Applications, and Advantages

Shot peening is a mechanical treatment process in which the surface of a metal object is subject to a stream of very high velocity small spherical balls of metal, glass,…

Prandtl Number – Calculation and Effective Use

The Prandtl Number is an unitless ratio that describes the momentum diffusivity to thermal diffusivity of a liquid. Using a Prandtl number provides the relation of the thickness of the…

Reflectivity

Reflectivity is the property by which an object is able to reflect light or radiation. Optically speaking, it refers to the amount of light that is reflected from incident light…

Material Hardness

There are different ways to define hardness depending on the material. For minerals, it is the property of resistance of a material to scratching by another material. Metallurgy defines hardness…

Graphene

The thinnest material known to man, graphene provides extreme strength, thermal conductivity, and electrical conductivity on par with copper. As such, this material has made an uproar with the scientific…

Metal Passivation

Metal passivation chemically treats metal to reduce its surface chemical reactivity. Reducing surface chemical reactivity helps inhibit corrosion in metal objects. In this article, you’ll learn about the benefits of…

Metal Pickling: Process and Advantages

In fabrication, metal pickling refers to a metal treatment process that reduces impurities on the surface of a metallic object. The pickling process removes the surface impurities, such as stains,…

Engineering and Manufacturing BOMs

The bills of material, or BOMs, for products or assemblies, allow engineering to design and guide the manufacturing of individual material, parts, or assemblies. A bill of material specifies the…

Molar Absorptivity

Molar absorptivity is the measure of how well an object absorbs radiation that the object is in contact with. Molar absorptivity is integral to Beer-Lambert law which relates absorbance, absorptivity,…

Fracture Toughness

Fracture toughness is a physical property of matter. It describes the resistance of the material to fracture while it has cracks.  It is different than simple toughness which is defined…

Crystal Structures – Composition & Properties

In the realm of material science, the composition of a material and a molecular level affects how a material will react to different forces, temperatures, and changes. Among the different…

HAZOP – Process and Methods

A hazop study is a powerful, systematic, and structured methodology that helps in identifying potential hazards and/or problems with plant operability. Hazop stands for hazard and operability study. The hazop…

Emissivity and Its Impact on Radiant Heat

The material property known as emissivity describes a material’s propensity to radiate energy. Emissivity measurements, sometimes referred to as an e-value, range from 0 to 1. A measurement of 0…

Materials Selection – The Engineering Process

The materials selection process for a component or assembly involves a careful evaluation of the benefits and trade-offs of material properties. In this article, you will learn the properties involved…

Project Engineer – Duties and Salary

A project engineer leads the technical development of an engineering project. Depending on the size and responsibility, he/she may also assume project management duties as well. The project engineer typically…

Pipe Stress Analysis

Pipe stress analysis provides an empirical tool to evaluate how a piping system behaves based on its material, pressure, temperature, fluid, and structure. Pipe stress analysis gives a good estimate…

Electrical Designer – Duties and Salary

An electrical designer works with mechanical designers, engineers, clients, and fabricators to produce design documentation for electrical equipment. Not all industries require a dedicated electrical designer. Equipment that with only…

Mechanical Designer – Duties and Salary

A mechanical designer works with engineers, clients, and fabricators to produce design documents. In this article, you will learn job roles, design packages used, credentials, and potential employers of mechanical…

Pump Cavitation

In many piping systems, pumps are crucial to the proper operation of the system. In some cases, the intended flow characteristics are not met which causes operational issues. Among those…

Smart P&ID

Smart or Intelligent P&IDs are schematic drawings that show the connections and relationships of piping and instrumentation within a piping system. Working in conjunction with stored information such as design…

Fatigue Failure

In the engineering world, most cases of material failure occur as a result of fatigue. Fatigue failure is the fracture that occurs in a material as a result of prolonged…

PFD – Process Flow Diagrams

PFDs, known as process flow diagrams, detail the processes or relationships between the major components in a system from piping to instrumentation. They offer high level guidance on the sequence…

Pipe Spool Drawings

Pipe spool drawings, sometimes referred to as piping isometrics, are shop drawings that provide a 3 dimension view of a piping run to allow shop personnel to fit and weld…

General Arrangement (G/A) Drawings

General Arrangement (G/A) drawings present the overall composition of a plant, skid, building, or piece of equipment. In this article you will learn the process for generating a G/A, how…

Piping & Instrumentation Diagrams (P&IDs)

The P&ID, also known as the Piping and Instrumentation Diagram, is an end to end schematic that displays major process details of a system. P&IDs show operating conditions, major equipment,…

5 Ways Equipment Providers Win at the Freight Game

Freight is an often overlooked element of executing large construction projects. Freight is rarely a significant a profit center, but when handled improperly, it can destroy profit margin, infuriate your…