Fabrication & Quality Education

Concrete Corbel – Purpose, Design, w/ Steel Beam

A concrete corbel is a short cantilever protruding from a wall, column, or the side of a beam. In this article, you will learn the purpose of a concrete corbel,…

IP65 vs IP68 – Differences and Applications

The IP (Ingress Protection) enclosure system uses a 2-digit suffix to describe the degree of ingress protection for enclosures. IP68 offers protection against submersion in water that is up to…

Elevator Hoist Beam – Application, Sizing, and Design

An elevator hoist beam refers to a steel beam within an elevator machinery room that provides support to elevator equipment. Some of this equipment includes lifting motors, the elevator cab,…

Aluminum Rivets in Steel – A Good Choice or Not?

Aluminum rivets are often used to secure steel material, but that doesn’t mean it’s the best practice. In this article, you will learn whether aluminum rivets can be used in…

ASD Load Combinations, Differences vs. LRFD

ASD (Allowable Stress Design) is a design procedure or philosophy, also referred to as service load design or working stress design (WSD). Moreover, it entails ensuring that the service load…

Non-Conductive Metals – Examples and Uses

Metals are, by definition, highly conductive. If a material is not conductive (thermally or electrically), then by definition, it must not be metal. However, lots of metal compounds are non-conductive…

Ladder Rung Spacing

Ladder rung spacing provides an important design parameter in ladder spacing. In this article, learn standards of ladder rung spacing, ladder rung width, and the use of ladder rung covers….

NPT vs NPTF, NPS, JIC, MIP – A Comparison of Various Threads

NPT and NPTF are standard thread designs that enjoy wide levels of adoption in industry. For pipes, the NPT threading requirements should be as per ANSI B1.20.1, while NPTF requirements…

Faying Surface – Overview, Welding Application, vs. Mating Surface

Faying surfaces refer to the contacting faces of two materials, which are put together to form a joint. In this article, you will learn more about its meaning, its application…

Moment Connection – Types, vs. Shear, Uses in Steel Construction

In structural engineering, a moment connection refers to a joint that allows the transfer of bending moment forces between a column and a beam or between any other two adjoining…

Re-entrant Corner – Problems, Conditions, Design & Repair Solutions

A re-entrant corner is an internal corner of a concrete slab. Depending on prevalent conditions, such a corner may be subject to cracking and often requires some reinforcement. In this…

Rebar Standee – How They Work, Types, and Design Considerations

Rebar standees are reinforcing bar assemblies that support top mats of reinforcing bars in thick concrete members, such as footings and slabs. In this article, you will learn more about…

Gusset Weld – Purpose, Design Considerations, and Applications

A gusset weld connects a gusset (piece of plate) to multiple structures such as beams or columns. Thus, it adds strength to a connection. Moreover, in industry, it is common…

Flare Bevel Weld – Overview, Examples, vs. Other Types

A flare bevel weld is one that connects a radius to a planar surface. For example, the weld between a flat bar and a piece of pipe along its side….

CF8M Material – Properties, Applications, Alternatives

The austenitic stainless steel casting grade CF8M sees its most extensive use in the United States. The letter “C” in the designation CF8M denotes that the alloy provides corrosion resistance….

Backgouge – Definition, Need, Procedure, vs. Back & Backing Weld

A backgouge removes weld metal and base metal from the weld root side of a welded joint to facilitate complete fusion. A welder performs this technique to guarantee the consistency…

Knurling – Process, Common Machines, Tools, & Applications

Knurling is a manufacturing process where geometric patterns roll onto a material. These patterns improve grip, increase friction, or repair worn-out parts. In this article, you will learn about the…

Turret Lathe – Operation, Vertical Variant, vs. Engine vs. Capstan

A turret lathe machine is a type of metalworking lathe that can perform repetitive production of duplicate parts. In addition, because of its hexagonal turret, which is an indexable tool…

What is ASME?

The article answers many common questions about ASME. Questions include: What exactly is ASME? What is ASME Certification, and why is it important? What is ASME code, and what does…

Material Certification – How To Read, Form 2.1, 2.2, 3.1, and 3.2

A material certificate, also known as a mill test report (MTR) or a mill test certificate (MTC), is a quality assurance document in the metals business. It validates technical parameters…

Doubler Plates – Application and Design

A doubler plate refers to a small piece of plate that is attached to a larger area, to provide strengthening in that location. In engineering, it is common to refer…

Shear Lug – Purpose, Types, Design Considerations, & Calculations

A shear lug refers to a steel embedment, which forms part of an anchorage that transfers lateral loads to a concrete foundation. Typically, a welder attaches it to the base…

Fill Material

Fill material is an earth-based material used to fill in a hole or depression created during site development. In addition to filling, the material can expand and create an artificial…

Structurally Sound: Definition, Use in Buildings and Bridges

Definition Structurally sound means free from defects, flaws decay, and deterioration to the extent that structures or buildings accomplish their design. In terms of public infrastructures, structurally sound buildings lack…

Sand Jack – Working Principles, Design, and Applications

A sand jack is a sand-filled container used as part of a cast-in-place bridge falsework. A sand-filled cavity aids in the removal of the falsework by allowing a slow and…

CRES Material – Properties, Applications, & Alternatives

The designation CRES stands for Corrosion Resistant (Stainless) Steel. This steel does not stain, corrode, or rust as easily as ordinary steel. However, it is not completely stain-proof. Also, it…

Flash Chamber

A flash chamber is a device that separates liquid and vapor refrigerant. It fits into the line after the expansion chamber, sending only liquid refrigerant to the evaporator and vapor…

Trap Guard – Benefit, Alternatives, and Evaluation

The trap guard provides a novel, trapless way of sealing sewer gas from returning through a drain. It competes as an alternative or potential supplement to p-traps. In this article,…

Stamped Drawings – Purpose, Process, and Alternatives

To obtain appropriate permitting and meet required specifications, many construction projects require stamped drawings. Stamped drawings bear the seal of a Professional Engineer. They may take the form of a…

Cheapest Metals – From Least to Most Expensive + Indices

Often classic material characteristics such ductility, hardness, fatigue strength, and yield strength aren’t the primary driver of material selection. Sometimes, an engineer or designer simply wants the cheapest metal available….

Cracking Moment

The cracking of concrete occurs due to several reasons. These reasons include excessive deflection, plastic shrinkage, severe corrosion of steel rebar, etc. However, the concept of cracking moment deals with…

Placing a Dowel Rebar into Existing Concrete

Dowel rebar is frequently employed in new construction projects and rehabilitation ones like slab replacement. Certain applications require the addition of a dowel rebar into existing concrete. You must understand…

Is Inconel Magnetic? No! But It Does Have Magnetic Properties

Is Inconel magnetic? No. It is nonmagnetic. But many Inconel alloys possess magnetic qualities despite not being naturally magnetic. This has to do with its alloying elements and behavior during…

Popping Test

The Popping Test or Pop Test is a set pressure test of Pressure Relief Valve (PRV). It is done by compressing air into the inlet of PRV until the valve…

Q235 Steel

Q235 is low-carbon structural steel often used in China. This article will discuss Q235 steel, properties, equivalent grades, and applications. Q235 Steel “Q” is the first character of the Chinese…

118-Degree Angle

Drills are available with a variety of point angles. The two most common drill bit angles are 118 degrees and 135 degrees. In this article, you will learn why a…

U-Channel vs C-Channel – A Detailed Guide

In this article, we are going to compare the U-channel vs C-channel beams, but first, we need to discuss some basics and talk about what a steel channel is. What…

Stud Bolts – Types, Chart, and Anchor Applications

Stud bolts are essentially threaded bars that mainly connect flanges. When coupled with suitable nuts, stud bolts can also mechanically fasten any parts together. Drilling, pipeline, and even general industry…

Hex Nut – Function, Sizing, Markings, and Grades

A hex nut or hexagonal nut is a metal fastener with six sides. Because it appears to be the most exact shape to hold, this is one of the most…

Mechanical Joint vs. Flange

Determining when to use a mechanical joint vs. a flange is an essential consideration for piping engineers. In this article, you’ll learn the fundamentals of a mechanical joint connection, the…

Trussed Tower – Overview, Applications, vs. Lattice Framework

Based on a triangular shape, a truss tower is a structure designed to support heavy loads. Steel truss towers provide the large majority of tower installs today. Many years ago…

Helical Spring Constant – Formula, K Factor, Parameters, and Applications

The helical spring constant, more commonly referred to as the k value, provides key information about a spring’s stiffness capacity. A greater k value is indicative of a greater restoration…

Is Tungsten Magnetic?

Is tungsten magnetic? Yes, tungsten is partially magnetic or paramagnetic because of unpaired electrons and the realignment of those electron paths due to an external magnetic field. Therefore, tungsten registers…

Torquing Bolts

With bolted joints, the most typical method of achieving fastener preload is to torque them. Torquing creates this load by applying rotational force to the head of a nut or…

Flange Nuts – Types, Dimensions, and Alternatives

Flanges nuts feature an oversized base that flares from the bottom of the nut. This specially designed base acts as an integrated, non-spinning washer. Flange nuts speed up assembly and…

Tapcon vs Wedge Anchor – Applications and Installation

Tapcon and wedge anchors are pre-installed mechanical anchors that attach structural objects to concrete structures. However, the wedge anchor suits heavier-duty applications, vs the Tapcon anchor that typically serve lighter…

Needle Gunning – Process, Safety, Applications, and Alternatives

Needle gunning is the process in which a needle gun or needle scaler services metal surfaces. Needle gunning removes rust, paint, and other surface imperfections of common metalwork. The process…

SDR-21 vs Schedule 40 Pipe

SDR-21 and Schedule 40 pipe provide varying degrees of wall thicknesses for piping systems. SDR-21 provides the best choice in most irrigation and drainage applications where flexibility is the top…

Golden Weld – Applications, Codes, Validation, and Procedure

A golden weld, or closure weld, is simply a welded joint that does not undergo pressure tests. Such welds go through extensive non-destructive testing (NDT) to ensure they are defect-free…

Weld Map

A weld map provides locations of welds on steel structures, pipe, pressure vessels, or specialty industrial equipment. In the fabrication of industrial material, locating different weld joints and seams allows…

What is Hydrogen Induced Cracking (HIC)?

Hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC), or hydrogen embrittlement, is a chemical phenomenon that causes metal alloys to fracture due to a build-up of hydrogen molecules within the crystal lattice structure. This unique…

Types Of Engineering Fit – Categories And Its Applications

Engineered products frequently must slip or press against each other to deliver their functions. The way products interact is designed as an engineering fit. There are three types of engineering…

Do Electric Cars Have Gears?

Electric cars generally do not have gears as they don’t have multi-speed transmissions. Electric vehicles receive power via an electric motor. The electric motor produces a consistent amount of torque…

Manganese Steel – History, Properties, Applications, and Alternatives

Manganese steel, also called Hadfield steel or mangalloy, is an alloy of the element manganese (Mn) and carbon steel. It provides high impact strength and abrasion resistance. In this article, you’ll learn…

Self Tapping Screw – Function, Materials, and Differences

In this article, you will learn the function of self-tapping screws, sizes, differences from standard and self-drilling screws, materials, and when to use them. First, what are self-tapping screws? Self-tapping…

Chemical Anchors – How They Work, Installation, and Applications

Chemical anchors are a type of anchor bolt that relies on chemical bonding. The method fastens steel studs and bolts into a substrate via chemical and resin means. The substrate…

Pop Rivet

The pop rivet holds two materials together with a clamping force. In this article, you will learn the function of the pop rivet, the pop rivet sizing chart, the removal of…

Steel Dowel Pins

Steel dowel pins align and help connect industrial plates, beams, and equipment. In this article, learn the types of steel dowel pins, dowel pin sizing charts, installation, removal, and typical…

Wing Nuts – Purpose, Size, Material Grades, & Alternatives

Wing nuts distinguish themselves by the presence of two tabs. The tabs enable hand tightening/loosening for installation/removal. In this article, you will learn about the working principle of wing nuts, sizes,…

U Bolt Types, Material, Dimensions, and Specifications

A U-bolt is a metal fastener in the shape of the letter U. It has a pin or screw bolt closure that fits across the two ends, making a closed…

What is Sandblasting? Process, Media, Equipment, & Alternatives

What is sandblasting? Sandblasting is the process of propelling media into a rigid object to clean or prepare the surface for further surface treatment. Despite the fact that it is…

Manufacturing vs. Fabrication

Fabrication vs manufacturing. What’s the difference? In this article, you will learn what comprises manufacturing, fabrication, and the key differences between these two disciplines. What is Manufacturing? The transformation of…

Lock Nut – Purpose, Types, Sizes, and Alternatives

A lock nut is a nut that resists loosening under vibrations and tension. It is also known as a locking nut, self-locking nut, prevailing torque nut, stiff nut, or elastic…

Spot Welding – Process, Machine, Metals, and Alternatives

Spot welding, also known as resistance spot welding, is a specialized process in metal fabrication. Unlike more commonly used forms of welding, spot welding does not use a filler metal….

Copper Wire

Copper is one of the most versatile and commonly used materials. Copper has a wide range of uses, some of these uses are power transmission lines, electrical wiring, and spark…

Grub Screw – Purpose, Size, Applications, & Alternatives

The grub screw, also known as a set screw, secures the connection between two components or parts. In this article, you’ll learn the purpose of the grub screw, commonly available…

Metal Casting – Types, Post-Processing, Applications, & Alternatives

Metal casting is a process in which metal is poured into a mold and allowed to cool and harden. It is a major part of the metalworking process and is…

Threaded Fasteners – Types, Material, Coating, and Installation

Threaded fasteners are hardware devices that mechanically join or affix two or more objects together via external threads. Fasteners form non-permanent couplings or connections, even if removed or deconstructed, there…

Laser Cleaning – How it Works, Machines, and Alternatives

Laser cleaning is a process that can effectively get rid of foreign matter from a metal surface. It has surged into the industry as a simple, time-saving, and cheap solution….

Graphene

The thinnest material known to man, graphene provides extreme strength, thermal conductivity, and electrical conductivity on par with copper. As such, this material has made an uproar with the scientific…

Metal Passivation

Metal passivation chemically treats metal to reduce its surface chemical reactivity. Reducing surface chemical reactivity helps inhibit corrosion in metal objects. In this article, you’ll learn about the benefits of…

Jam Nut – Use and Function

The jam nut provides a quick and easy way to secure a subject nut in place or to secure a load. In this article, you’ll learn about its function and…

Metal Pickling: Process and Advantages

In fabrication, metal pickling refers to a metal treatment process that reduces impurities on the surface of a metallic object. The pickling process removes the surface impurities, such as stains,…

CNC Programming – Machines and Techniques

A CNC machine is a programmable device that can autonomously perform various operations of machining to produce a product. CNC means ‘Computer Numerical Control’. An operator applies CNC programming techniques…

Anchor Bolts – Specification and Types

Anchor bolts attach structural objects to concrete structures. In the fabrication industry, anchor bolts commonly fix equipment, structural skids, and vessels to concrete. One end of the anchor bolt embeds…

Steel Beams

Skid beams supply structural integrity for buildings, skid construction, and many other steel structures. The proper design, specification, and assembly of steel beams provide the foundation for a successful steel…

Steel Stairs

Steel stairs see frequent deployment in modularized construction and structural skids. Allowing for easy movement through a process module or plant, steel stairs meet building codes to allow safe passage…

Desalters

Desalters are crucial in the processing of crude oil. Typically, they are the first step in processing crude oil by removing salt and dissolving it into water. In this article,…

API Tanks – Function and Uses

API tanks see heavy use in the petroleum industry to store oil and other liquids. This article describes the features of an API tank, their construction, the different types, and…

Heat Treatment

Heat treatment, also known as heat treating, is a heated metalworking process that brings metal alloys to a melting point and cools to achieve certain properties. In this article, you…

Lifting Lugs

Lifting lugs are designed mounting points that help carry an object or equipment. In the world of engineering, industrial-scale lifting lugs move large containers and other heavy loads. They are…

Pressure Vessels

Pressure vessels are containers designed to hold liquids, vapors, or gases at high pressures. A vessel is considered a pressure vessel when internal pressure surpasses 15 psig. Examples of common pressure…

E-Houses

Electrical buildings, sometimes referred to as “e-houses” or “electrical houses”, are prefabricated walk-in enclosures that contain sensitive electrical and mechanical equipment that requires protection. In this article, you will learn…

Structural Skids

Structural skids allow for the mounting of equipment to a piping system, and for fabrication to occur in a shop environment. This reduces cost and complexity compared to equipment integration…

Weld Testing – Methods, Equipment, and Standards

Weld testing occurs via non-destructive examination (NDE) by a variety of means. NDE, also known as non-destructive testing (NDT), examines materials, components, and welds in such a way that their…