Piping Tools, Calculators, and Charts

Flange Rating

Piping & Vessels

Given design pressure and temperature, calculate an appropriate flange rating.

Flange Rating Calculator

Pipe Thickness Calculator

Piping & Vessels

This calculator can be used to find the wall thickness of a pipe given pressure and temperature requirements.

Pipe thickness Calculator

NPSHA Calculator

Piping & Vessels

This net positive suction head available (NPSHA) calculator provides the amount of available head for a pump.

NPSHA Calculator

Reynolds Number Calculator

Piping & Vessels

Characterizes pipe flow as either laminar, turbulent, or transitional and provides accurate Reynolds number.

Reynolds Number Calculator

Piping Education

Hazen-Williams vs Darcy-Weisbach

Both Hazen-Williams and Darcy-Weisbach equations compute head loss due to friction in a pipe. Hazen-Williams coefficient is a function of only the pipe roughness vs Darcy-Weisbach which considers internal roughness,…

3″ Sewer Pipe – Slope, Dimensions, and Relining

A 3-inch sewer pipe slope should be between 3/16″ and 5/16″ per foot. In this article, we will review how to determine the slope of a 3″ sewer pipe, a…

SDR 11 vs. SDR 17

The SDR rating scheme for the pipe includes SDR 11 and SDR 17. At a 100°F operating temperature, SDR 11 provides a pressure rating of 126psi vs SDR 17, which…

SDR 21 vs SDR-26

SDR 21 and SDR 26 are both under the SDR rating system for the pipe. SDR 21 has a 200 psi rating, vs SDR 26 which has a 160 psi…

Pipe Obvert Elevation – Implication, Calculation, and Applications

Pipe obvert elevation is the vertical distance between the inside-top of a pipe and any datum. Moreover, the term ‘obvert’ means to turn. The obvert measurement mirrors the pipe invert,…

SDR 11 vs. SDR 13.5 – Comparision and Pipe Properties

SDR 11 vs. SDR 13.5 both categorize under the SDR rating system for the pipe. The SDR (standard dimension ratio) is a pressure pipe rating method. The SDR increases as…

NPT vs NPTF, NPS, JIC, MIP – A Comparison of Various Threads

NPT and NPTF are standard thread designs that enjoy wide levels of adoption in industry. For pipes, the NPT threading requirements should be as per ANSI B1.20.1, while NPTF requirements…

SDR 26 vs SDR 35 – Comparison and Pipe Properties

SDR 26 and SDR 35 both categorize under the SDR rating system for pipe. At 5% deflection, the SDR 26 pipe can undergo pressurization of 115psi vs the SDR 35…

Spectacle Blind

A spectacle blind is a key component of pipeline systems that provides isolation of certain sections as the need arises. Typically, the entire device consists of a blind and a…

Stub-in Pipe – How it Works, vs. Stub On, and Stub Tube

Stub-in pipe refers to a branch connection between a pipe and a header. Making this connection involves drilling a hole into the header of the run pipe and fitting the…

SDR Pipe – Definition, vs. DR, Chart, and Applications

The SDR pipe stands for “Standard Dimensional Ratio” and describes the pipe’s geometry. The nominal outer diameter to nominal wall thickness ratio is known as the SDR. This article defines…

Pipeline Header – Purpose, Design, and Calculation

A pipeline header connects flowlines from several different sources into a single gathering line. In this article, you will learn the purpose of a pipeline header, important factors in its…

SDR 26 vs Schedule 40 Pipe

SDR-26 and Schedule 40 pipe offer varying levels of wall thicknesses for piping frameworks. Both Schedule and SDR pipes have external diameters based on IPS (iron pipe standard), yet their…

Trap Guard – Benefit, Alternatives, and Evaluation

The trap guard provides a novel, trapless way of sealing sewer gas from returning through a drain. It competes as an alternative or potential supplement to p-traps. In this article,…

Venturi Meter vs. Orifice Meter – Differences, Applications, & Alternatives

Venturi and orifice meters are devices that reduce the pressure of a moving stream to measure its average velocity, volumetric flow rate, or mass flow rate. The continuity equation and…

Vortex Breaker – Formation, Effects on Flow, Design, and Applications

A vortex refers to the rotation of a fluid’s core while draining from a vessel. Moreover, engineers use vortex breakers to prevent the formation of vortices due to their effect…

Residual Pressure

Residual pressure is a concept common with water supply systems. It refers to the pressure remaining in a pipe during flow conditions. This contrasts with static pressure, which is the…

Pipe Invert Elevation

Pipe invert elevation is the vertical distance between the inside-bottom of a pipe and a given benchmark. Moreover, the term ‘invert’ stems from the resemblance of the pipe bottom to…

Popping Test

The Popping Test or Pop Test is a set pressure test of Pressure Relief Valve (PRV). It is done by compressing air into the inlet of PRV until the valve…

Q235 Steel

Q235 is low-carbon structural steel often used in China. This article will discuss Q235 steel, properties, equivalent grades, and applications. Q235 Steel “Q” is the first character of the Chinese…

Hex Nut – Function, Sizing, Markings, and Grades

A hex nut or hexagonal nut is a metal fastener with six sides. Because it appears to be the most exact shape to hold, this is one of the most…

Swivel Flange – Function, Ratings, Materials & Applications

A swivel flange is a kind of special weld neck flange that consists of a forged outer ring, a heavy forged welding hub, and a gasket. Upon installing the flange,…

Mechanical Joint vs. Flange

Determining when to use a mechanical joint vs. a flange is an essential consideration for piping engineers. In this article, you’ll learn the fundamentals of a mechanical joint connection, the…

SDR-21 vs Schedule 40 Pipe

SDR-21 and Schedule 40 pipe provide varying degrees of wall thicknesses for piping systems. SDR-21 provides the best choice in most irrigation and drainage applications where flexibility is the top…

Golden Weld – Applications, Codes, Validation, and Procedure

A golden weld, or closure weld, is simply a welded joint that does not undergo pressure tests. Such welds go through extensive non-destructive testing (NDT) to ensure they are defect-free…

What is Hydrogen Induced Cracking (HIC)?

Hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC), or hydrogen embrittlement, is a chemical phenomenon that causes metal alloys to fracture due to a build-up of hydrogen molecules within the crystal lattice structure. This unique…

U Bolt Types, Material, Dimensions, and Specifications

A U-bolt is a metal fastener in the shape of the letter U. It has a pin or screw bolt closure that fits across the two ends, making a closed…

Restriction Orifices – Process Fluid Control

Restriction orifices (RO) provide economical and simple flow control in piping systems. This flow device limits the pressure or flow rate of a fluid to meet processing requirements. It consists…

Pipework Expansion Joints

Pipework expansion joints function as connectors in piping systems to help alleviate and dampen certain stresses. Typically they are a polymer that allows for expansion between the flanges of the…

Pipe Repair

Properly repairing pipe is a crucial part to ensure piping systems provide long-lasting and reliable service. In this article, you will learn about applicable code and specifications pertaining to pipe…

Flange Gaskets – Types & Uses

Flange gaskets are crucial in ensuring the proper functioning ofof piping systems. Gaskets provide proper sealing between flange connections in a system in order to prevent the leak or escape…

Pipe Fittings

Fittings are an integral part of a pipe system. They attach to pipes to deliver process media in a safe manner as well as regulating the flow of fluids. In…

Pipe: Industrial Use and Applications

A piping system is the assembly of instruments, valves, fittings, and pipes that allow for the transfer of fluid or gas from one location to another. The pipe itself is…

Piping System: How It All Goes Together

The piping system of a plant or process module consists of the pipe, flanges, valves, instruments, filters, and any other products placed in or adjacent to the flow path. A…

Pipe Flange

Pipe flanges connect pipes, valves, pumps, and other equipment to form a piping system. They also allow for a modular build of equipment in a shop environment. During operation, the…