Piping Tools, Calculators, and Charts

Flange Rating

Piping & Vessels

Given design pressure and temperature, calculate an appropriate flange rating.

Flange Rating Calculator

Pipe Thickness Calculator

Piping & Vessels

This calculator can be used to find the wall thickness of a pipe given pressure and temperature requirements.

Pipe thickness Calculator

NPSHA Calculator

Piping & Vessels

This net positive suction head available (NPSHA) calculator provides the amount of available head for a pump.

NPSHA Calculator

Reynolds Number Calculator

Piping & Vessels

Characterizes pipe flow as either laminar, turbulent, or transitional and provides accurate Reynolds number.

Reynolds Number Calculator

Piping Education

Venturi Meter vs. Orifice Meter – Differences, Applications, & Alternatives

Venturi and orifice meters are devices that reduce the pressure of a moving stream to measure its average velocity, volumetric flow rate, or mass flow rate. The continuity equation and…

Vortex Breaker – Formation, Effects on Flow, Design, and Applications

A vortex refers to the rotation of a fluid’s core while draining from a vessel. Moreover, engineers use vortex breakers to prevent the formation of vortices due to their effect…

Residual Pressure

Residual pressure is a concept common with water supply systems. It refers to the pressure remaining in a pipe during flow conditions. This contrasts with static pressure, which is the…

Pipe Invert Elevation

Pipe invert elevation is the vertical distance between the inside-bottom of a pipe and a given benchmark. Moreover, the term ‘invert’ stems from the resemblance of the pipe bottom to…

Popping Test

The Popping Test or Pop Test is a set pressure test of Pressure Relief Valve (PRV). It is done by compressing air into the inlet of PRV until the valve…

Q235 Steel

Q235 is low-carbon structural steel often used in China. This article will discuss Q235 steel, properties, equivalent grades, and applications. Q235 Steel “Q” is the first character of the Chinese…

Hex Nut – Function, Sizing, Markings, and Grades

A hex nut or hexagonal nut is a metal fastener with six sides. Because it appears to be the most exact shape to hold, this is one of the most…

Swivel Flange – Function, Ratings, Materials & Applications

A swivel flange is a kind of special weld neck flange that consists of a forged outer ring, a heavy forged welding hub, and a gasket. Upon installing the flange,…

Mechanical Joint vs. Flange

Determining when to use a mechanical joint vs. a flange is an essential consideration for piping engineers. In this article, you’ll learn the fundamentals of a mechanical joint connection, the…

SDR-21 vs Schedule 40 Pipe

SDR-21 and Schedule 40 pipe provide varying degrees of wall thicknesses for piping systems. SDR-21 provides the best choice in most irrigation and drainage applications where flexibility is the top…

Golden Weld – Applications, Codes, Validation, and Procedure

A golden weld, or closure weld, is simply a welded joint that does not undergo pressure tests. Such welds go through extensive non-destructive testing (NDT) to ensure they are defect-free…

What is Hydrogen Induced Cracking (HIC)?

Hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC), or hydrogen embrittlement, is a chemical phenomenon that causes metal alloys to fracture due to a build-up of hydrogen molecules within the crystal lattice structure. This unique…

U Bolt Types, Material, Dimensions, and Specifications

A U-bolt is a metal fastener in the shape of the letter U. It has a pin or screw bolt closure that fits across the two ends, making a closed…

Restriction Orifices – Process Fluid Control

Restriction orifices (RO) provide economical and simple flow control in piping systems. This flow device limits the pressure or flow rate of a fluid to meet processing requirements. It consists…

Pipework Expansion Joints

Pipework expansion joints function as connectors in piping systems to help alleviate and dampen certain stresses. Typically they are a polymer that allows for expansion between the flanges of the…

Pipe Repair

Properly repairing pipe is a crucial part to ensure piping systems provide long-lasting and reliable service. In this article, you will learn about applicable code and specifications pertaining to pipe…

Flange Gaskets – Types & Uses

Flange gaskets are crucial in ensuring the proper functioning ofof piping systems. Gaskets provide proper sealing between flange connections in a system in order to prevent the leak or escape…

Pipe Fittings

Fittings are an integral part of a pipe system. They attach to pipes to deliver process media in a safe manner as well as regulating the flow of fluids. In…

Pipe: Industrial Use and Applications

A piping system is the assembly of instruments, valves, fittings, and pipes that allow for the transfer of fluid or gas from one location to another. The pipe itself is…

Piping System: How It All Goes Together

The piping system of a plant or process module consists of the pipe, flanges, valves, instruments, filters, and any other products placed in or adjacent to the flow path. A…

The Basics of Flanges

Flanges connect pipes, valves, pumps and other equipment to form a piping system. They also provide easy access for cleaning, inspection or modification. As a standard, flanges are composed of…