Equipment Tools, Calculators, and Charts

Shaft Work Calculator

Equipment

This calculator allows for the calculation of shaft work and the optimal sizing of a rotating shaft under a torque load

Shaft Work Calculator

Fan Size/Air Changes

Equipment

Choose to solve for either fan displacement (CFM) or air changes per hour using this tool.

Fan Size and Air Changes

HVAC Sizing Calculator

Equipment

Designed for a modular enclosure designed in accordance with the International Building Code

HVAC Sizing Calculator

Equipment Education

IP68 vs. IP69 – Differences and Applications

The IP (Ingress Protection) enclosure system uses a 2-digit suffix to describe the degree of ingress protection for enclosures. IP68 provides protection against extended immersion up to 1 meter, whereas…

IP55 vs. IP65 – Differences and Applications

The IP (Ingress Protection) enclosure system uses a 2-digit suffix to describe the degree of ingress protection for enclosures. IP55 provides dust protection against any particles that may interfere with…

Should You Use Anti-Seize on a Spark Plug? (PL0’s Secrets)

Many drivers apply anti-seize to spark plugs. This article explores whether anti-seize on sparkplugs is a good idea and how to remove a stuck spark plug. Spark Plug A spark…

Idler Gear – Purpose, Torque Calculation, Reverse Application

An idler gear, as the name implies, does no work. However, its use is frequent in drive trains where its default position is between a driving gear and a driven…

NEMA 4X vs NEMA 12 – Overview, Applications, Differences

NEMA 4X and NEMA 12 characterize degrees of protection in line with specifications from the National Electrical Manufacturers Association. In this article, you will learn about the NEMA vs IEC…

Applying Anti-Seize on Lug Nuts – A Good Idea? Alternatives?

Many drivers apply anti-seize prior to fastening lugnuts for easier removal during a flat tire. This process is not a good idea as lug torquing is meant to be done…

Do Diesel Engines Have Spark Plugs?

Unlike their gasoline counterparts, diesel engines do not have spark plugs. Rather, compression is what aids the ignition of the air-fuel mixture within the combustion chamber. In this article, you…

Dead Head Pump – Causes, Detecting, Pressure, and Resolution

The dead head of a pump is a condition in which a centrifugal pump operates continually without any fluid flow through the pump. This leads to undesirable consequences for the…

Spectacle Blind

A spectacle blind is a key component of pipeline systems that provides isolation of certain sections as the need arises. Typically, the entire device consists of a blind and a…

Belt Creep – Definition, Cause, vs. Slip, How to Reduce

Belt creep occurs in a belt-drive transmission when the drive such as a pulley, moves slightly faster than the belt. In this article, you will learn the definition of belt…

Constant Mesh Transmission

A constant mesh transmission refers to a gearbox where all or most of the mating gears are always in mesh. This is in contrast with the older style sliding gear…

Metal Clad Switchgear – Features, Specifications, vs. Metal Enclosed

Switchgear refers to a range of switches, circuit breakers, fuses, and other electrical/electronic equipment that serve to regulate, control, energize or de-energize a power system. Moreover, metal-clad switchgear is a…

Motor Peckerhead

A motor peckerhead is an electrician’s slang referring to the wiring box that is mounted on an electric motor. In professional language, it has a host of names including terminal…

Motor Rotation – Directions, Relevance, and Reversal

In a magnetic field, a coil of wire that carries current experiences a force that causes rotation. This is the governing principle of electric motors, which scientists refer to as…

Sand Jack – Working Principles, Design, and Applications

A sand jack is a sand-filled container used as part of a cast-in-place bridge falsework. A sand-filled cavity aids in the removal of the falsework by allowing a slow and…

Forward Slip vs Side Slip – Definitions and Differences

The differences between forward slip vs. side slip are minimum as both slip types operate the same. Both types of slip provide a useful aviation tool for experienced pilots and…

Bilateral Tolerance

Bilateral tolerance is one of the primary three tolerances that occur most often on working drawings. A bilateral tolerance exists when a variation from the desired dimension is shown as occurring…

Flash Chamber

A flash chamber is a device that separates liquid and vapor refrigerant. It fits into the line after the expansion chamber, sending only liquid refrigerant to the evaporator and vapor…

Ejector vs. Eductor – Differences, Applications, & Alternatives

Ejectors and eductors are liquid jet pumps that use water or other liquids or gas under pressure to create a pumping action. Operators frequently confuse ejector vs. eductor pumps due…

Venturi Meter vs. Orifice Meter – Differences, Applications, & Alternatives

Venturi and orifice meters are devices that reduce the pressure of a moving stream to measure its average velocity, volumetric flow rate, or mass flow rate. The continuity equation and…

Running Torque – Definition, vs Holding, Prevailing, Breakway Torque

Running torque refers to the amount of torque a device needs to maintain the constant angular velocity of a rotating part once in operation. Knowing this value provides important operating…

Vortex Breaker – Formation, Effects on Flow, Design, and Applications

A vortex refers to the rotation of a fluid’s core while draining from a vessel. Moreover, engineers use vortex breakers to prevent the formation of vortices due to their effect…

Vacuum Pump Oil – Function, Properties, and Maintenance

Vacuum pumps change the pressure in a contained area to create a full or partial vacuum. The multifunctional element inside the vacuum pump that lubricates the pumping apparatus is vacuum…

Positive Displacement Pump – Working Principles, Examples

A positive displacement (PD) pump transports fluid through a system by periodically enclosing a set volume of fluid and moving it mechanically. Pistons, screws, gears, rollers, diaphragms, and vanes can…

Do Electric Cars Have Gears?

Electric cars generally do not have gears as they don’t have multi-speed transmissions. Electric vehicles receive power via an electric motor. The electric motor produces a consistent amount of torque…

Optical Comparator – Purpose, Accessories, and Alternatives

One of the best instruments to check and measure the dimensions of tiny manufactured parts is an optical comparator. It allows the operator to obtain accurate measurements of items that…

Restriction Orifices – Process Fluid Control

Restriction orifices (RO) provide economical and simple flow control in piping systems. This flow device limits the pressure or flow rate of a fluid to meet processing requirements. It consists…

Flame Arrestor

The flame arrestor, sometimes spelled as flame arrester, is a device that connects to a piping system that allows gas, liquids, etc. to flow through it while ceasing the entry…

Pump Cavitation

In many piping systems, pumps are crucial to the proper operation of the system. In some cases, the intended flow characteristics are not met which causes operational issues. Among those…

Fractioning Column

Fractioning columns are devices used heavily in distillation processes and primarily associated with chemical plants. Distillation is the method in which essential components of a mixture are separated or purified…

Diesel vs. Gas Engine Life Expectancy

A standard internal combustion engine features either diesel or gas as its source of fuel. The two vary mainly in their ideal applications and the ways in which they function,…

Generators: Function and Types

A generator is a device that converts kinetic energy into electric energy. Generators are used as back up power sources during storms, emergencies, or any other sort of power outages…

Transformers

A transformer is a device used in electronic systems and is used in the generation, transmission, and distribution of electricity. They allow for efficient current transfer over long distances via…

Process Filters – Gas & Liquid – Specification, Types, & Maintenance

Process filters clean liquid and gas to meet purity requirements in industrial applications. Required filtering considers the contaminants to be removed and often occurs in tandem with knock-out drums, electric…

VFDs: Variable Frequency Drives

Variable frequency drives (VFDs) are a type of motor controller that drives a motor by varying its input frequency and voltage. This allows VFDs to control the speed and power…

Centrifuges: Function and Types

Centrifuges make use of the mechanical force to separate fluids and solids of varying densities. Force is applied perpendicularly to the axis of spin. In this article, you will learn…

Pumps: Types and Operation

A pump is a mechanical device that utilizes energy to transport fluids. Various sources including electrical motors, wind power, or manual force application may provide the energy to make pumps…

Turbines: Types and Operation

Turbines are machines for producing continuous power in which a wheel or rotor, typically fitted with vanes, is made to revolve by a fast-moving flow of water, steam, gas, air,…

Compressors: Types and Applications

Industrial compressors are used for a variety of tasks, from creating plastic bottles to providing breathing air in confined spaces.  The basic functionality of a compressor is to increase the…

Electric Motors: Design, Usage, and Applications

Electric motors have a broad range of applications, from children’s toys to huge industrial fans. Electric motors are known for their versatility and ability to supply power in numerous applications….

Heat Exchangers: Design and Types

Heat exchangers are a common piece of industrial equipment. Knowing when to specify heat exchangers as well as design and construction details is a highly valuable skill. This article reviews…

Electric Heaters: Function and Types

Electric heaters show up in a lot of industrial applications and it is important to understand where and why heaters are used. In this article, you will learn when electric…

Electrostatic Precipitators: Usage and Applications

Electrostatic precipitators (ESP) are filtration devices that remove fine particles from flowing gas through the use of an induced electrostatic charge. ESPs apply energy only to the particulate matter being…